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Terms Glossary

The Terms Glossary includes helpful acronyms and definitions for terms frequently used by statewide longitudinal data system (SLDS), cloud data platform, and big data analytics professionals.

Business Requirements

Constraints, demands, necessities, needs, or parameters—as defined by the business community or customers—that must be met or satisfied, usually within a certain timeframe. 

Business Rules

Statements that impose constraints on the selection, relationships, and structure of the DATA ELEMENTS in a DATABASE. Business rules are also a component of BUSINESS LOGIC.


A claim used to purport a cause-and-effect relationship based on data analysis. Causal claims can be made only when results are statistically significant within experimental design and randomized control trials. Typically, analytic results render CORRELATIONS rather than causal claims.

CEDS Open Source Community

A community to provide collaborative development between STAKEHOLDERS of the COMMON EDUCATION DATA STANDARDS (CEDS) to develop the CEDS DATA WAREHOUSE and contribute code to the CEDS Open Source Repositories for stakeholder use.

Centralized System

A DATA MODEL in which all participating source systems copy their data to a single, centrally located data REPOSITORY where they are organized, integrated, and stored using a common DATA STANDARD. Data in a P20W+ centralized SLDS are periodically matched, integrated, and loaded into a central repository. USERS query the system and can access the data that they have been AUTHORIZED to view and use.


Chief Information Officer


Cloud computing platforms provide on-demand ACCESS to various data system resources. Cloud computing services may be hosted on the Internet or on private networks. Types of cloud services include—but are not limited to—computing, storage, DATABASE, networking, systems management, MACHINE LEARNING, analytics, security and IDENTIFICATION, and APPLICATION integration.


A DISCLOSURE LIMITATION METHOD to preserve an individual’s data by reducing the level of detail used to report some variables. Examples of this technique include recoding continuous variables into intervals, recoding categorical data into broader intervals, and top- or bottom-coding the ends of continuous distributions.

Code (or Option) Set

The list of codes defining the limited set of value options allowed for a DATA ELEMENT. The code set contains numeric or alphanumeric “codes” without spaces or special characters for machine readability. COMMON EDUCATION DATA STANDARDS (CEDS) option sets provide a list of codes (code set) and corresponding human-readable descriptions/definitions. “Code set” and “option set” are used interchangeably by some education agency information technology (IT) professionals.

Common Education Data Standards (CEDS)

An education data management initiative whose purpose is to streamline the understanding of data within and across P20W+ institutions and sectors. The CEDS initiative includes a common vocabulary, DATA MODELS that reflect that vocabulary, tools to help education STAKEHOLDERS understand and use education data, an assembly of METADATA from other education data initiatives, and a CEDS OPEN SOURCE COMMUNITY of education stakeholders who assist in the development of the standard and data models.